Evacuation of the fecal matter and other accumulation of dosha in the lower gastrointestinal tract through the anal route are known as Virechana karma.Expulsion of the waste from the body is the verbal meaning of the word virechana.For the same reason, all eliminatory procedures are referred by the name virechana in general.In the usage of different terms like shirovirechana, shukravirechana and mutravirechana, The word virechana means mere expulsion.
Though this word refers to expulsion of dosha from any route in general, in particular, elimination of dosha by way of inducing purgation is referred by the name virechana.In the present chapter, the term virechana is used to refer the elimination of dosha from the lower gastrointestinal tract through the anal route.Among the three doshas the morbid accumulation of pitta dosha is best eliminated by this procedure. Abnormal accumulation of kapha dosha in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Depending upon the degree of shodhana achieved by the virechana karma it is catagorised into mridu, madhyama and tikshna virechana.Minimal amount of shodhana when achieved is known as mridu virechana.Moderate amount of shodhana is referred by the name madhyama virechana.Tikshna virechana refers to maximal amount of shodhana.In another perspe, tive the virechana karma is also classified into four as anulomana, sramsana, bedhana and virechana.
This refers to the process of evacuation; in which the medicines administered cause disintegration of the mass of the fecal matter accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract as well as renders its formed (pakva) state.Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) is the best example for anulomana.
Evacuation of the waste from the gastrointestinal tract without transforming it in to the formed (pakva) state is called by the name sramsana.Aragvadha (Cassia fistula) when administered orally causes sramsana.
The oral medication that cause disintegration of hard fecal matter accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract, and then expels the same is known as bedhana.Katurohini (Picrorrhiza kurroa) is a well-known herb inducing bedhana.
The accumulation of the fecal matter in the gastrointestinal tract both in the formed state or unformed state is liquefied and then expelled out, and this process is known as virechana.Trivrit (Operculina turpenthum) is the best herb causing recana.Depending upon the prior preparation of the client with snehana therapy, virechana is also categorized into two types as snigdha virechana and ruksha virechana.
The procedure of administering the virechana karma following abhyantara snehapana is termed as snigdha virechana.Abhyantara snehapana is done for the mobilization of morbid dosha into the gastrointestinal tract and then is expelled out by way of virechana karma.IN another perspective, the drugs possessing snigdha property like eranda (Ricinus communis) Taila when used for inducing purgation is also known as snigdha virechana.
The employment of virechana karma with no or minimal prior preparation of the client with abhyantara snehana is called by the name ruksha virechana.In certain diseases like visarpa (acute bacterial infections of the dermis), shotha (edema), kamala (jaundice) etc where snehana is contraindicated; ruksha virechana is preferred instead of snigdha virechana.
INDICATIONS FOR VIRECHANA KARMA THERAPY
Following is the list of diseases where virechana is indicated as a shodhana therapy.
1. Jvara * Febrile illness.
2. Kushtha * Skin diseases*
3. Prameha * Diseases characterized by polyurea as well as the Abnormal character of urine.
4. Urdhvaga * Diseases characterized by tendency of
5. Raktapitta * Spontaneous bleeding from the upper routes like mouth, nostrils etc.
6. Bhagandara * Fistula-in-ano
7. Arshas * Hemorrhoids
8. Bradhna * Inguinal hernia.
9. Pliharoga * Splenic enlargement due to different causes.
10. Gulma * Diseases related to abdomen characterized by abdominal pain and mass.
11. Arbuda * Malignant tumors
12. Galaganda * Thyroid swelling
13. Granthi * Cystic swellings
14. Gara * Slow poisoning
15. Visuchika * Disease characterized by both vomiting and Diarrhoea.
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